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CSS - Cascading Style Sheets

W3C Recommendations, Working Drafts, and Tutorials

This section is filled with links to W3C's Recommendations, Working Drafts, W3C's tutorials on cascading style sheets (CSS), and links to their helpful charts and indexes.

It's important to note that not all browsers, including the latest browsers, support all of W3C's CSS Recommendations or interpret the Recommendations in the same ways. Some browsers will ignore what isn't supported, some will do goofy things, and then some. The good news is that browser support does continue to improve, and the forseeable future looks even more promising, too.

For more on browser support, browser bugs, and related topics see the CSS category's sections, Solutions to CSS Bugs and Cross-Browser, Cross-Platform CSS Issues, Web Sites or Web Site Sections Devoted to CSS, and CSS Discussion Lists, and Newsgroups.

IE7 CSS Hacks, IE8 CSS Bugs, Bug Fixes, Solutions: Wondering what to expect with CSS and Internet Explorer 8? Want some information about conditional comments? Looking for IE7 CSS hacks? Going nuts with a browser problem with your CSS? Check out Solutions to CSS Browser Bugs, CSS Bug Fixes, and Cross-Browser, Cross-Platform CSS Issues.

W3C General CSS Information, Tips


W3C CSS1 Recommendations

CSS1 Recommendations were first released December, 1996. Web standards, including CSS Recommendations, were not well supported by browser companies at that point. Happily that has changed substantially, with the major browsers supporting most or all of CSS1 and many CSS2 features.

W3C CSS2 Recommendations

CSS Level 2 became a W3C Recommendation early 1998, building on CSS1. By early 2002, newer browsers supported Web standards much better than their predecessors, supporting many CSS2 features.

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Books on CSS
Recommended by

  • CSS Pocket Reference: Visual Presentation for the Web, 3rd Edition, by Eric Meyer. Published by O'Reilly, October, 2007.
  • Book cover: The CSS Anthology: 101 Essential Tips, Tricks & Hacks, Practical Solutions to Common Problems, by Rachel Andrew
  • The Zen of CSS Design, by Dave Shea, Molly E. Holzschlag. Peachpit 12-2004.
  • Cover - The Ultimate CSS Reference, by Tommy Olsson, Paul O'Brien. Sitepoint (02-2008).

See more CSS books, read reviews, why we recommend each book

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W3C CSS2.1 Recommendations

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W3C CSS3 Recommendations

CSS3 working drafts and candidate recommendations are in progress. You can check out what we can look forward to with the upcoming version of CSS. Some newer browsers even support a few of the features. The W3C also welcomes and invites feedback before these modules become final Recommendations.

As you will also see below, CSS is becoming modularized. There are several reasons: 1) One module can easily be updated, speeding up the turnaround time and allowing greater flexibility; 2) User agents can also choose to support specific modules, such as an aural browser with constraints and only needing aural CSS specifications; and, 3) to help clarify relationships between various parts of the specifications and to reduce the overall size of the document.

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W3C CSS and Accessibility


W3C CSS Mobile

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